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New technology was successfully developed to design and build production furnaces to reach these temperatures, adding another key piece to the puzzle. Powder Processing. The final piece of the puzzle was to achieve a method that could produce, at low cost, thousands of tons of pure ceramic powders such as alumina. Large-scale chemical production of alumina powder had been developed by Bayer (the same company that introduced aspirin) clear back in 1888, to supply aluminum oxide raw material for aluminum metal production, but the Bayer powder contained too many sodium impurities to be useful for the new ceramics, Finally, by about 1936, scientists succeeded in producing highpurity, low-cost alumina powder on a large scale.

Today, however, we value Chinese works as art treasures. Some of the most spectacular ceramic items during the Tang Dynasty were commissioned by wealthy aristocrats. Their purpose was to Beauty of Ceramics e Figure 3-8. Chinese imperial vase. Commissioned for use in a Chinese imperial palace around AD 7 736 to 7795, during the Qianlong period. 6 inches high, decorated with blue clouds and red bats and coated with a clear glaze. Bats were a common theme. The Chinese words for bat and happiness coincide.

We now refer to this fine ceramic as porcelain. Europeans were completely captivated by the beauty of porcelain and tried for centuries, without success, to duplicate it. Finally, i n a b o u t 1710, Ehrenfried Walther v o n Tschirnhausen and Johann Friedrich Bottger accomplished the feat at Meissen in Saxony, Germany. Meissen attracted the best ceramic designers in Europe and quickly became the source of exquisite porcelain vases, sculptures, figurines, and other ornate creations. By the mid 1700s, Josiah Wedgwood, in England, introduced an assembly-line approach to the fabrication of porcelain and similar fine ceramics (bone china), making them affordable to a broader cross section of society.

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A Chemical & Theoretical Way To Look At Bonding On Surfaces Hoffmann [Article]

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