Download e-book for kindle: A history of the mathematical theory of probability : from by Todhunter, I. (Isaac)

By Todhunter, I. (Isaac)

The beneficial reception which has been granted to my heritage of the Calculus of adaptations through the 19th Century has inspired me to adopt one other paintings of a similar variety. the topic to which I now invite recognition has excessive claims to attention because of the delicate difficulties which it contains, the precious contributions to research which it has produced, its vital functional functions, and the eminence of these who've cultivated it.

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Additional info for A history of the mathematical theory of probability : from the time of Pascal to that of Laplace

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In this chapter, we assume you know most of your algebra skills well, so we review only the tougher algebra concepts — as in the ones that give a lot of students trouble if they don’t review them. In addition to reviewing inequalities, radicals, and exponents, we also introduce a purely pre-calculus idea: interval notation. ) Solving Inequalities Inequalities are mathematical sentences that indicate that two expressions aren’t equal. They’re expressed using the following symbols: Greater than: > Greater than or equal to: ≥ Less than: < Less than or equal to: ≤ Solving equations with inequalities is almost exactly the same as solving equations with equalities.

For instance, if you have two functions, f(x) and g(x), then the composition f(g(x)) takes , and it’s g and puts it in place of x in the formula for f(x). This is also written as basically read right to left; the g function goes into the f function.

The answer is x > 8 or x < –3. First, you need to recognize that you’re dealing with a quadratic and recall that to solve a quadratic, you need to isolate it (for a refresher on quadratics, see Chapter 4). Subtract 4 from both sides of the equation: x2 – 5x – 24 > 0. Next, factor your quadratic: (x – 8)(x + 3) > 0. Setting each factor to 0 gives you your key points: 8 and –3. If you put these on a number line, you can see that you have three possible solutions: less than –3, between –3 and 8, and greater than 8.

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A history of the mathematical theory of probability : from the time of Pascal to that of Laplace by Todhunter, I. (Isaac)


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