By C.J.B. Macmillan
happens, the way it occurs, and why it occurs. Our assumption should be that this can be as actual in schooling because it is in atomic physics. yet this leaves many different inquiries to resolution. The an important ones: what sort of technological know-how is right or acceptable to schooling? How does it vary from physics? what's wrong with the prevai1~ ing, nearly unopposed study culture in schooling? What may or can be performed to switch it with a extra enough tradi tion? What options are essential to describe and clarify what we discover there? it's during this realm that we discover ourselves. the place to begin? One position - our position, understand that - is with one restricted yet imperative inspiration in schooling, instructing. a protracted philosophical culture excited by the character of training is going again (along with every thing else) to Plato, divulging most up-to-date ly within the paintings of such philosophers as B. O. Smith, Scheffler, Hirst, Komisar, eco-friendly, McClellan, Soltis, Kerr, Fenstermacher, et al. An empirical culture runs parallelto the philosophers -it has its so much amazing smooth proponents in Gage, the Soars, Berliner, Rosen shine, yet its roots may be traced to the Sophists. those tradi tions were at loggerheads over the centuries.
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Additional resources for A Logical Theory of Teaching: Erotetics and Intentionality
II Gage Engaged Although it is easy to stand back fr'Om a research traditi'On like Gage's and take P'Otshots at individual assumptions and weaknesses, such potshots could never be conclusive in the decision tD accept or reject it. Any such tradition will eventually build up a body of anomalies that seem intractable. Fr'Om the 'Outside, these PROCESS-PRODUCT RESEARCH 49 may seem to call for outright rejection of the whole shebang, while from the inside they may be perceived merely as interesting problems to be solved by further research or ad· hoc theoretical tinkering.
But farmers also need to know how to farm - how to till the sail, put in the seed, get rid of weeds and insects, harvest the crop and get it to market. If our analogy applies even loosely, teachers similarly need to know how to teach - how to motivate pupils, assess their readiness, act on the assessment, present the subject, maintain discipline, and shape a cognitive stnicture. Too much of educational psychology makes the teacher mferwhat he needs to do from what he is told about learners and learning.
Rather than asserting that the question must be explicitly asked, or assuming that it would be if the student just thought about it, a different approach is necessary to clarify the logic of the interaction. It is not that the student does ask the question, or that the teacher even believes that the student would ask the question, but rather that the teacher believes that in some sense, the student ought to ask the question. The person who describes a scene or a painting must believe or assume that the auditor's present state of knowledge and perceptual stance makes the asking of the question at least relevant and perhaps necessary.
A Logical Theory of Teaching: Erotetics and Intentionality by C.J.B. Macmillan