By J. J. Kipling
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Extra resources for Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes
1927, 31, 251. 8. A. M. Williams, Med. K. Vetenskapsakad. , 1913, 2, No. 27. 9. E. Heymann and E. , 1933, 63, 154. 10. W. A. Patrick and D. C. Jones, /. Phys. , 1925, 29, 1. 11. M. R. A. Rao, /. Indian Chem. Soc, 1935, 12, 345. 12. G. E. Bayle and A. Klinkenberg, Ree. Trav. , 1957, 76, 593. 13. J. J. Kipling and D. A. Tester, /. Chem. , 1952, 4123. 14. J. J. Kipling, Quart. , 1951, 5, 60. 15. G. A. H. Elton, /. Chem. Soc, 1951, 2958. 16. J. H. Hildebrand and R. L. Scott, "Solubility of Non-Electrolytes", Reinhold, New York, 1950, 3rd edition.
The Experimental Approach Williams suggested the first experimental approach. If, in a closed vessel, the solid is suspended in the vapour above (and thus in equilibrium with) the liquid mixture (Fig. 3) it is possible to follow the change in concentra tion of the liquid by the normal methods and to measure the total amount of adsorbed material by weighing. 2) where w is the observed weight, and Μγ and M2 are the molecular weights of the two components respectively. It can generally be assumed that the equilibrium at the solid-adsorbate interface established in this way is the same as would be established by immersing the solid in the liquid.
Individual isotherms for adsorption by charcoal from mixtures of acetic acid and water. ) In later investigations, the method has been used much more successfully, especially in the adsorption by charcoal from binary mixtures, 6-9 including some aqueous mixtures. 10 The rate at which equilibrium is established depends mainly on the vapour pressures of the two components. It is quite rapid if the individual components have saturated vapour pressures of over 40 mm. Hg, but it may take several days or even weeks for equilibrium to be established if they are only a few millimetres.
Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes by J. J. Kipling