By Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan
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Additional info for An Introduction to Phonetics
Some are plosives while the others are fricatives or laterals. But the place of articulation is clearly the alveolar ridge for all of them. The Iranian EFL learners' attention is specifically drawn to the difference between the Persian and English /t/ and /d/ phonemes. Whereas in English these sounds are purely alveolar stops, in Persian they are dentoalveolar phonemes. The blade of the tongue touches the back of upper teeth to form these sounds in Persian whereas, in English, the tongue lies solely behind the alveolar ridge.
Occlusion occurs in the mouth only; the nasal resonance is continuous. Indeed, many linguists rank the nasals among the continuants. /m/ is a bilabial nasal. The mouth is configured just as for the corresponding bilabial stop /p/ and /b/. The lips are pressed tightly together. The air builds up and is suddenly released. /n/ is a dental or alveolar nasal. The mouth is configured just as for the corresponding dental or alveolar stop /t/ and /d/. The tongue makes contact either with the front teeth, or with the alveolar ridge directly above them.
111) [h] is an interesting case. It is a voiceless glottal fricative. , the posterior shunt) in its upper part at the level of the arythenoidal cartilage. A strong friction develops when air flows through this opening. One point of caution is, however, necessary here. English and Persian make use of different forms of the approximant /r/. On the whole, the approximant /r/ is of three types: (a) flap, (b) trill, and (c) retroflex. English draws on trill and retroflex types while Persian employs trill and flap types.
An Introduction to Phonetics by Parviz Birjandi and Mohammad Ali Salmani-Nodoushan