By John F. Watts
Widely revised and up to date with extra fabric integrated in present chapters and new fabric on perspective resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* contains an obtainable advent to the foremost spectroscopic thoughts in floor analysis.
* presents descriptions of contemporary tools and techniques.
* incorporates a distinctive thesaurus of key floor research phrases.
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Additional resources for An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES
The gain of a channeltron depends upon the potential difference between its ends. When the voltage is low no output pulses are detected. As the voltage increases above some threshold, pulses can be detected. The detection efficiency continues to increase with voltage until a plateau voltage is reached. Above this voltage, the measured output count rate is independent of the voltage across the channeltron. The operating point should be chosen to be just above the plateau. The precise operating voltage will depend upon the age of the channeltron and its design.
13 Auger spectra of aluminium and its native oxide showing the effect of changes in the retard ratio upon the resolution of the spectrum; at high retard ratio the metal, oxide and energy loss features become resolved 43 ANALYSERS FOR ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY per cent is usually chosen depending upon the size of the chemical shift that needs to be observed. 13 shows the affect of changing the retard ratio on the Auger spectrum of aluminium metal which is covered with a thin layer of oxide. If differential spectra are needed these are usually calculated from the direct spectra within the data system, rather than using phase sensitive detection which was popular in the past.
Therefore, if the spot of electrons is scanned on the anode, the X-ray beam will be scanned on the sample surface. Again, the transfer lens can be operated in its maximum transmission mode because it does not contribute to the spatial resolution. The advantages of this method are the same as those for source-defined small area XPS. The disadvantage is that the field of view is very limited. This is especially true in the direction of the Bragg angle. As the electron beam is scanned over the anode, the diffraction angle is changing and so the wavelength of the X-rays reaching the sample is changing.
An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES by John F. Watts